Irregular forms

Reading guide

Headings contain runes, phonetics and tokens. Description contains a link to the docs and a short description of the rune. Both regular and irregular forms are given.

Want to Ctrl-f to find out the meaning of something weird you saw? Search for \symbol. ie \? or \=. It'll show you to the irregular forms that uses that symbol.

. dot (nock)

Anything Nock can do, Hoon can do also.

.+ dotlus

docs \+

[%dtls p=atom]: increment an atom with Nock 4.

Regular: .+(p)

Irregular: +(p)

.= dottis

docs \=

[%dtts p=hoon q=hoon]: test for equality with Nock 5.

Regular: .=(p q)

Irregular: =(p q)

; mic (make)

Miscellaneous useful macros.

;: miccol

docs \:

[%mccl p=hoon q=(list hoon)]: call a binary function as an n-ary function.

Regular: ;:(p q)

Irregular: :(p q)

: col (cells)

The cell runes.

:- colhep

docs \[\]\^\+\`\~

[%clhp p=hoon q=hoon]: construct a cell (2-tuple).

Regular: :-(p q)


  [a b]   ==>   :-(a b)
[a b c]   ==>   [a [b c]]
  a^b^c   ==>   [a b c]
    a/b   ==>   [%a b]
    a+b   ==>   [%a b]
     `a   ==>   [~ a]
 ~[a b]   ==>   [a b ~]
  [a b]~  ==>   [[a b] ~]

= tis (flow)

Flow hoons change the subject. All non-flow hoons (except cores) pass the subject down unchanged.

=< tisgal

docs \:

[%tsgl p=hoon q=hoon]: compose two hoons, inverted.

Regular: =<(p q)

Irregular: p:q

| bar (core)

docs \$

Core hoons are flow hoon.

Technically not irregular syntax, but worth mentioning.

The above runes produce a core with a single arm, named $ ("buc"). We can recompute this arm with changes, useful for recursion among other things. Commonly used with the irregular syntax for %=, :make, like so: $().

% cen (call)

The invocation family of runes.

%= centis

docs \(\)

[%cnts p=wing q=(list (pair wing hoon))]: take a wing with changes.

Regular: %=(p a 1)

Irregular: p(a 1)

%~ censig

docs \~

[%cnsg p=wing q=hoon r=hoon]: call with multi-armed door.

Regular: %~(p q r)

Irregular: ~(p q r)

%- cenhep

docs \(\)

[%cnhp p=hoon q=hoon]: call a gate (function).

Regular: %-(p q)

Irregular: (p q)

Note: (p) becomes $:p (=<($ p)), which behaves as you would expect (func call w/o args).

$ buc (mold)

A mold is a gate (function) that helps us build simple and rigorous data structures.

$? bucwut

docs \?

[%bcwt p=(list model)]: mold which normalizes a general union.

Regular: $?(p)

Irregular: ?(p)

$_ buccab

docs \_

[%bccb p=value]: mold which normalizes to an example.

Regular: $_(p)

Irregular: _p

? wut (test)

Hoon has the usual branches and logical tests.

?! wutzap

docs \!

[%wtzp p=hoon]: logical not.

Regular: ?!(p)

Irregular: !(p)

?& wutpam

docs \&

[%wtpm p=(list hoon)]: logical and.

Regular: ?&(p)

Irregular: &(p)

?| wutbar

docs \|

[%wtbr p=(list hoon)]: logical or.

Regular: ?|(p)

Irregular: |(p)

^ ket (cast)

Lets us adjust types without violating type constraints.

^: ketcol

docs \,

[%ktcl p=spec]: mold gate for type p.

Regular: ^:(p)

Irregular: ,p

^- kethep

docs \`

[%kthp p=model q=value]: typecast by mold.

Regular: ^-(p q)

Irregular: `p`q

^* kettar

docs \*

[%kttr p=spec]: produce bunt value of mold.

Regular: ^*(p)

Irregular: *p

^= kettis

docs \=

[%ktts p=toga q=value]: name a value.

Regular: ^=(p q)

Irregular: p=q


Trivial molds



See %sand for other irregular definitions of atoms.

List addressing


docs \+\.\^

[%limb p=(each @ud [p=@ud q=@tas])]: attribute of subject.

+2 -
+3 +
+4 -<
+5 ->
+6 +<
+7 +>
+8 -<-


docs [%wing p=(list limb)]; a limb search path. a.b finds limb a within limb b ("var" a within "var" b).

Printing stuff


In our in-house examples throughout our documentation, we use irregular forms instead of regular for the sake of verbosity. But remember with irregular forms: everything is just runes! Like magic. In general, irregular forms (usually) read better, but of course regular forms provide more information about what you're doing by showing you the full rune. Of course, it's up to you, the Hoon programmer, as to whether or not you want to use these.