Urbit / Docs

Shell (Dojo)

The Dojo is our shell; it processes system commands and returns output. It's a good place to quickly experiment with Urbit. On the surface the Dojo is just a Hoon REPL. On the inside, the Dojo is a system for operating on and transforming data in Urbit.

Quickstart

You can use the Dojo to run arbitrary Hoon code, as well as non-Hoon system commands.

Math

Evaluate a Hoon expression (whitespace matters):

~your-urbit:dojo> (add 2 2)
~your-urbit:dojo> %+  add  2  2

Tall-form Hoon may require multiple lines:

~your-urbit:dojo> %+  add
~your-urbit:dojo< 2
~your-urbit:dojo< 2

Hoon uses something called the subject. The Dojo has its own subject, and that's where Hoon's equivalent of variables, called faces, are stored.

Use =var to save faces to the Dojo subject.

~your-urbit:dojo> =foo (add 2 2)

Note, however, that =var is Dojo syntax, not Hoon syntax. You cannot bind a face in a .hoon file in this way.

System Commands

Use =dir to set the current working directory:

~your-urbit:dojo> =dir %/web

(% represents your current directory. For a complete explanation on urbit paths, see the filesystem section)

Generators (files in /gen) are run with +:

~your-urbit:dojo> +hello 'world'

Save output to a file in %clay with *:

~your-urbit:dojo> *some/file/path/hoon 'hello world'

Run system commands from :hood, like reload, using |:

~your-urbit:dojo> |reload %eyre

Generators

Generators are short Hoon scripts, saved as .hoon files in the /gen directory. Many Dojo commands exist in the form of generators. The syntax for running a generator is +genname for a generator saved as genname.hoon.

+cat

Accepts a path and displays the file. Similar to Unix cat.

~your-urbit:dojo> +cat %/gen/curl/hoon
+code

Generates a code that is used to remotely log into your ship. No arguments.

~your-urbit:dojo> +code
+curl

Retrives data from a URL. Accepts a tape. Similar to Unix curl.

~your-urbit:dojo> +curl "http://nyt.com"
+hello

Just prints the argument. Accepts a @ta.

~your-urbit:dojo> +hello 'mars'
+ls

Similar to Unix ls. Accepts a path.

~your-urbit:dojo> +ls %/web
~your-urbit:dojo> +ls /~talsur-todres/home/2/web/notes
+moon

Generates a random moon from a planet. No arguments.

~your-urbit:dojo> +moon
+solid

Compile the current state of the kernel and output a noun. Usually downloaded to a file in unix. No arguments.

~your-urbit:dojo> .urbit/pill +solid
+test

Testrunner. Can test multiple generators at once, conventionally ones in the /test folder. Takes a path.

~your-urbit:dojo> +test /lib
+ticket

Generate a ticket for an urbit ship. Takes an urbit name (@p).

~your-urbit:dojo> +ticket ~talsur-todres-your-urbit
+tree

Generate a recursive directory listing. Takes a path.

~your-urbit:dojo> +tree %/web

Hood

The hood is the system daemon. See gen/hood and app/hood.

|hi - Sends a direct message. Sort of like Unix write. Accepts an urbit name (@p) and a string (tape, which is text wrapped with double-quotes).

~your-urbit:dojo> |hi ~binzod "you there?"

|link / |unlink - Link / unlink a remote app. Accepts an Urbit name and an app name.

~your-urbit:dojo> |link ~talsur-todres %octo

|mass - Prints the current memory usage of all the kernel modules. No arguments.

~your-urbit:dojo> |mass

|reload - Reloads a kernel module (vane) from source. Accepts any number of vane names.

~your-urbit:dojo> |reload %clay %eyre

|reset - Reloads hoon.hoon and all modules. No arguments.

~your-urbit:dojo> |reset

|start - Starts an app. Accepts an app name.

~your-urbit:dojo> |start %curl

Manual

Sources and sinks

A Dojo command is either a source or a sink. A source is just something that can be printed to your console or the result of some computation. A sink is an effect: a change to the filesystem, a network message, a change to your environment, or typed message to an app.

Sources can be chained together, but we can only produce one effect per command.

Sinks

= - Set variable

Set any environment variable:

~your-urbit:dojo> =foo 42
~your-urbit:dojo> (add 2 foo)

44

Make sure to note that =var is Dojo syntax, not Hoon syntax. You cannot bind a variable in a .hoon file in this way.

Special Variables

There are a few special variables that the Dojo maintains.

: - Send to app

:app goes to a local app, :~ship/app goes to the app on ~ship.

Send a helm-hi message to hood:

~your-urbit:dojo> :hood &helm-hi 'hi'

Apps usually expect marked data, so & is often used here.

* - Save in %clay

Save a new .udon (Udon) file in web:

~your-urbit:dojo> *%/web/foo/udon '# hello'

The last component of the path is expected to be the mark (or mime type).

. - Export to Unix

Export a noun to Unix with .:

~your-urbit:dojo> .foo/bar/baz (add 2 2)

Which creates a file at pier/.urb/put/foo/bar.baz.

This is very often used with +solid:

~your-urbit:dojo> .urbit/pill +solid

Which outputs a new urbit.pill to pier/.urb/put/urbit.pill

Sources

& - Mark conversion

Convert between marks using &:

~your-urbit:dojo> &html &md '# hello'
'<html><head></head><body><div><h1 id="-hello">hello</h1></div></body></html>'
_ - Run a function

Use _ to run a gate (or function):

Write an arbitrary function and pass data to it:

~your-urbit:dojo> _|=([[email protected]] (mul a 3)) 3
9

Use a function to get the status code from an http request:

~your-urbit:dojo> _|=([[email protected] q=* r=*] p) +http://google.com
301
+ - - HTTP requests

+http[s]://example.com - sends a GET request

+http[s]://example.com &json [%s 'hi'] - sends a POST request with the JSON "hi" in the body.

-http[s]://example.com &json [%s 'hi'] - sends a PUT request with the JSON "hi" in the body.

Note that the first of these is a source while the last two are sinks.

+ - Generators

Generators are simple Hoon scripts loaded from the filesystem. They live in gen/.

An example of a generator that is built into your urbit is +code. It produces the code needed to log into your ship remotely.

~your-urbit:dojo> +code
fintyr-haldet-fassev-solhex

Variables

You can use = to set an environment variable in Dojo, but there are a few reserved names that have special uses.

dir

Current working %clay desk and revision. Read / write.

Examples:

~your-urbit:dojo> =dir %/web
~your-urbit:dojo> +ls %
404/hoon docs/ dojo/hoon lib/ listen/hoon md static/udon talk/ testing/udon tree/main/ unmark/ womb/
lib

Current set of libraries (/lib) in your environment. Can be set with /+. Read / write.

Examples:

~your-urbit:dojo> /+  react
~your-urbit:dojo> ::  now we can use arms from lib/react.hoon
~your-urbit:dojo> (react-vale:react %div)
sur

Current set of structures (/sur) in your environment. Can be set with /-. Read / write.

Examples:

~your-urbit:dojo> /-  sole
~your-urbit:dojo> ::  now we can use arms in sur/sole.hoon
~your-urbit:dojo> `sole-effect:sole`[%bel ~]
now

The current (128-bit @da) time. Read-only.

Example:

~your-urbit:dojo> now
:: produces
~2016.3.21..21.10.57..429a
our

The current urbit ship. Read-only.

Example:

~your-urbit:dojo> our
:: produces
~your-urbit
eny

512 bits of entropy. Read-only.

Example:

~your-urbit:dojo> eny
:: produces
\/0vnt.d474o.gpahj.jcf3o.448fh.2lamb.82ljm.8ol8u.b02vi.mrvvp.b7et2.knb7m.l8he\/
  8.8qb9s.drm36.77n9b.a0qst.30g03.l5lb5.nvsbc.v39tn
\/

Troubleshooting

If you encounter %dy-edit-busy while entering commands, it is because your Dojo is blocked on a timer or an HTTP request. Type backspace and your Dojo will end the blocked command.