A Caesar cipher is a very simple way to obfuscate a message. The technique takes a string and swaps out each component letter with another letter that is a specified number of positions up or down in the alphabet. For example, with a “right-shift” of 1,
a would become
j would become
z would wrap around back to
Consider the message below, and the cipher that results when we Caesar-shift the message to the right by 1.
Plaintext message: "do not give way to anger" Right-shifted cipher: "ep opu hjwf xbz up bohfs"
Note that the Caesar cipher is completely unsuitable for actually securing information. Implementing it in a program is just a fun exercise.
Below is a generator that performs a Caesar cipher on a tape. This example isn't the most compact implementation of such a cipher in Hoon, but it demonstrates important principles that more laconic code would not. Save it as
caesar.hoon in your
!: :- %say =+ ^= caesar |% ++ alpha "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz" ++ shift |= [message=tape [email protected]] (operate message key (encoder key)) ++ unshift |= [message=tape [email protected]] (operate message key (decoder key)) ++ operate |= [message=tape [email protected] encoder=(map @t @t)] ^- tape %+ turn message |= [email protected] (~(got by encoder) a) ++ encoder |= [[email protected]] =/ keytape=tape (rott alpha key) (coder alpha keytape) ++ decoder |= [[email protected]] =/ keytape=tape (rott alpha key) (coder keytape alpha) ++ coder |= [a=tape b=tape] (~(put by (zipper a b)) ' ' ' ') ++ zipper |= [a=tape b=tape] ^- (map @t @t) =| chart=(map @t @t) ?. =((lent a) (lent b)) ~| %uneven-lengths !! |- ?: |(?=(~ a) ?=(~ b)) chart $(chart (~(put by chart) i.a i.b), a t.a, b t.b) ++ rott |= [m=tape [email protected]] =/ [email protected] (lent m) =+ s=(trim (mod n length) m) (weld q.s p.s) -- |= [* [msg=tape [email protected] ~] ~] :- %noun =. msg (cass msg) :- (shift.caesar msg key) (unshift.caesar msg key)
This generator takes two arguments: a
tape, which is your plaintext message, and an unsigned integer, which is the shift-value of the cipher. It produces a cell of two
tapes: one that has been shifted right by the value, and another that has been shifted left. It also converts any uppercase input into lowercase.
Try it out in the Dojo:
> +caesar "test" 2 ["vguv" "rcqr"] > +caesar "test" 26 ["test" "test"] > +caesar "test" 28 ["vguv" "rcqr"] > +caesar "test" 104 ["test" "test"] > +caesar "tESt" 2 ["vguv" "rcqr"] > +caesar "test!" 2 nest-fail
Let's examine our
caesar.hoon code piece by piece. We won't necessarily go in written order; instead, we'll cover code in the intuitive order of the program. For each chunk that we cover, try to read and understand the code itself before reading the explanation.
!: :- %say =+ ^= caesar |%
!: in the first line of the above code enables a full stack trace in the event of an error.
:- %say begins to construct a cell with
%say as the head, and the code that follows as the tail. This causes the Arvo to interpret the file as a
=+ adds a noun the subject,
=^ caesar names that noun, and
|% is used to create a core that contains the following arms. This results in having a core with the face
caesar that we can call.
Now let's look at the rest of the program that is outside of our core:
|= [* [msg=tape [email protected] ~] ~] :- %noun =. msg (cass msg) :- (shift.caesar msg key) (unshift.caesar msg key)
The top line creates a gate with
|=. The sample of that gate follows the scheme used by
%say generators: it's a 3-tuple whose parts allow for different kinds of data. We only need non-optional arguments, though, so we only fill in the second part. There we take a
msg argument and a
key argument. We use a
* and a
~ in the first part (Arvo data) and third part (optional arguments), respectively, because we aren't using them here. See the generator documentation for more information.
:- %noun simply labels the output of this program as the
=. msg (cass msg) changes the input string
msg to lowercases.
=. changes the leg of the subject to something else. In our case, the leg to be changed is
msg, and the thing to replace it is
cass is a standard-library gate that converts uppercase letters to lowercase.
:- (shift.caesar msg key) and
(unshift.caesar msg key) simply composes a cell of a right-shifted cipher and a left-shifted cell. This is the final output of our generator.
++ rott |= [m=tape [email protected]] =/ [email protected] (lent m) =+ s=(trim (mod n length) m) (weld q.s p.s)
rott arm takes takes a specified number of characters off of a tape and puts them on the end of the tape.
|= [m=tape [email protected]] creates a gate that takes two arguments:
=/ [email protected] (lent m) stores the length of
m to make the following code a little clearer.
trim is a a gate from the standard library that splits a tape at into two parts at a specified position. So
=+ s=(trim (mod n length) m) splits the tape
m into two parts,
q, and stores it in
s. We call the modulus operation
mod to make sure that we split our
tape at the correct place, even if
n is larger than
(weld q.s p.s) uses
weld, which combines two strings into one. In this instance, we are switching the two parts: the second part
q.s is welded to the front, and the first part
p.s is welded to the back.
++ zipper |= [a=tape b=tape] ^- (map @t @t) =| chart=(map @t @t) ?. =((lent a) (lent b)) ~| %uneven-lengths !! |- ?: |(?=(~ a) ?=(~ b)) chart $(chart (~(put by chart) i.a i.b), a t.a, b t.b)
zipper arm takes two tapes and creates a
map out of them -- an an association between their elements.
So then if
tapes are easier to manipulate, why then are we producing
cords? In this case what we are going to to be doing is mapping a single element of a
tape to another element of a
tape, which as we have established as being a
cord. This will simplify our use of this method and we don't need to manipulate the keys or values, simply look them up.
|= [a=tape b=tape] builds a gate that takes two tapes,
b, as its sample.
^- (map @t @t) casts the gate to a
map with a
cord key and a
cord value. A
map is a type equivalent to a dictionary in other languages: it's a data structure that associates a key with a value. If, for example, we wanted to have an association between
a and 1 and
b and 2, we could use a
=| chart=(map @t @t) adds a noun to the subject with the default value of the
(map @t @t) type, and gives that noun the face
?. =((lent a) (lent b)) checks if the two tapes are the same length. If not, the program crashes.
|- creates a trap, a gate that is called immediately.
?: |(?=(~ a) ?=(~ b)) checks if either tape is empty. If this is true, we the program is finished and can return
chart, the the
map that we have been creating.
If the above test finds that its condition to be false, we trigger a recursion that constructs our
map: $(chart (~(put by chart) i.a i.b), a t.a, b t.b)
. This code recursively adds an entry in our map
where the head of the tape a
maps to the value of the head of tape b
with ~(put by chart)
, our calling of the put
arm of the by
map-engien core. The recursion also "consumes" those heads with every iteration by changing a
and b` to their tails.
Perhaps now you can understand why this arm is named
zipper. It's putting two tapes together by matching pieces from each side, something akin to a jacket zipper.
We have three related arms to look at next,
coder is the foundation of the other two, so we'll look at it first.
++ coder |= [a=tape b=tape] (~(put by (zipper a b)) ' ' ' ')
|= [a=tape b=tape] creates a gate that takes two
put by on the next line, giving it a
map produced by the
zipper arm that we created before. This adds an entry to the map where the space character (called
ace) simply maps to itself. This is done to simplify the handling of spaces in
tapes we want to encode, since we don't want to shift them.
++ encoder |= [[email protected]] =/ keytape=tape (rott alpha key) (coder alpha keytape) ++ decoder |= [[email protected]] =/ keytape=tape (rott alpha key) (coder keytape alpha)
decoder are implemented in terms of the
coder arm. These gates are essentially identical, with the arguments reversed. They simplify the two common transactions you want to do in this program: producing
maps that we can use to encode and decode messages.
In both cases, we create a gate that accepts a
=/ keytape=tape (rott alpha key) creates a
keytape noun by calling
alpha is our arm which contains a
tape of the entire alphabet.
(coder alpha keytape), for
(coder keytape alpha), for
decoder, produce a
map that has the first argument as the keys and the second as the values.
If our two inputs to
"bcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyza" We would get a
'a' maps to
'c' and so on. By doing this we can produce a
map that gives us a translation between the alphabet and our shifted alphabet, or vice versa.
Still with us? Good. We are finally about to use all the stuff that we've walked through.
++ shift |= [message=tape [email protected]] (operate message key (encoder key)) ++ unshift |= [message=tape [email protected]] (operate message key (decoder key))
unshift take two arguments: our
tape that we want to manipulate; and our
key, the value that we want to shift our message by.
shift is for encoding, and
unshift is for decoding. Thus,
shift calls the
operate arm with
(operate message key (encoder key)), and
unshift makes that call with
(operate message key (decoder key)). These both produce the final output of the core, to be called in the form of
(shift.caesar msg key) and
(unshift.caesar msg key) at the bottom of the program.
++ operate |= [message=tape [email protected] encoder=(map @t @t)] ^- tape %+ turn message |= [email protected] (~(got by encoder) a)
operate produces a
%+ rune allows us to pull an arm with a pair sample. The arm we are going to pull is
turn. This arm takes two arguments, a
list and a
gate to apply to each element of the
If we then give our arm Caesar's famous statement, and get our left- and right-ciphers.
> +caesar "i came i saw i conquered" 4 ["m geqi m wea m gsruyivih" "e ywia e ows e ykjmqanaz"]
Now, to decode, we can put either of our ciphers in with the appropriate key and look for the legible result.
> +caesar "m geqi m wea m gsruyivih" 4 ["q kium q aie q kwvycmzml" "i came i saw i conquered"] > +caesar "e ywia e ows e ykjmqanaz" 4 ["i came i saw i conquered" "a usew a kso a ugfimwjwv"]
1. Take the example generator and modify it to add a second layer of shifts.
2. Extend the example generator to allow for using characters other than a-z.
3. Build a gate that can take a Caesar shifted
tape and produce possible unshifted