Urbit is a clean-slate software stack designed to implement an encrypted P2P network of general-purpose personal servers. Each server on this network is a deterministic computer called an 'urbit' that runs on a Unix-based virtual machine.
The Urbit stack primarily comprises:
- Arvo: the functional operating system of each urbit, written in Hoon.
- Hoon: a strictly typed functional programming language whose standard library includes a Hoon-to-Nock compiler.
- Nock: a low-level combinator language whose formal specification fits readably on a t-shirt.
- Vere: a Nock interpreter and Unix-based virtual machine that mediates between each urbit and the Unix software layer.
- Azimuth: the Urbit identity layer, built on the Ethereum blockchain.
Central to the operation of Urbit are cryptographic methods. We give a high-level overview on the usage of cryptography in Urbit and how it is implemented here.
Anatomy of a personal server
Your urbit is a deterministic computer in the sense that its state is a pure function of its event history. Every event in this history is a transaction; your urbit's state is effectively an ACID database.
Because each urbit is deterministic we can describe its role appropriately in purely functional terms: it maps an input event and the old urbit state to a list of output actions and the subsequent state. This is the Urbit transition function.
<input event, old state> -> <output actions, new state>
For example, one input event could be a keystroke from the terminal, say
[enter] after having already typed
(add 2 2); and an output action could be
to print in the terminal window the resulting value of a computation performed
when the user hit
[enter], in this case
4. The input event is stored in the
urbit's event history.
Events always start from outside of your urbit, whether they're local to the computer running the urbit (e.g., a keystroke in the terminal) or they originate elsewhere (e.g., a packet received from another urbit). When an event is processed, various parts of the urbit state can be modified before the resulting list of output actions is returned.
Can output actions from your urbit cause side-effects in the outside world? The answer had better be "yes," because a personal server without side effects isn't useful for much. In another sense the answer had better be "no," or else there is a risk of losing functional purity; your urbit cannot guarantee that the side effects in question actually occur. What's the solution?
Each urbit is sandboxed in a virtual machine, Vere, which runs on Unix. Code running in your urbit cannot make Unix system calls or otherwise directly affect the underlying platform. Strictly speaking, internal urbit code can only change internal urbit state; it has no way of sending events outside of its runtime environment. Functional purity is preserved.
In practical terms, however, you don't want your urbit to be an impotent brain in a vat. That's why Vere also serves as the intermediary between your urbit and Unix. Vere observes the list of output events, and when external action is called for makes the appropriate system calls itself. When external events relevant to your urbit occur in the Unix layer, Vere encodes and delivers them as input events.