2.7 Gall

Gall is the Arvo vane responsible for handling user space applications. When writing a Gall application there are several things you will need to understand.

For another explanation of Gall, take a look at /tutorial/arvo/gall

bowl and moves

The core of a gall app is a door which has two parts of its subject, the first a bowl:gall which contains a lot of standard things used by gall apps, the second a type containing app state information.

Vanes in Arvo communicate by means of moves. When a move is produced by an arm in a gall app, it's dispatched by Arvo to the correct handler for the request, be it another application or another vane. A move is pair of bone and card. These are essential components to understand when learning to use gall.

A bone is an opaque cause that initiates a request. When constructing a move you can often use ost.bowl and when responding to an incoming move you can use the bone in that move to construct your response.

A card is the effect or event that is being requested. Each application should define the set of cards it can produce. Here is an excerpt from clock.hoon showing its cards

+$  card
  $%  [%poke wire dock poke]
      [%http-response =http-event:http]
      [%connect wire binding:eyre term]
      [%diff %json json]

Each card is a pair of a tag and a noun. The tag indicates what the event being triggered is and the noun is any data required for that event.


Gall applications can have a number of arms that get called depending on the information they are sent.

This arm is called once when the agent is started. It has no input and lets you perform any initial IO.


This arm is called when the app is initially started.


This arm is called immediately before the agent is upgraded. It packages the permament state of the agent in a vase for the next version of the agent. Unlike most handlers, this cannot produce effects.


This arm is called immediately after the agent is upgraded. It receives a vase of the state of the previously running version of the agent, which allows it to cleanly upgrade from the old agent.


This arm is called when the agent is "poked". The input is a cage, so it's a pair of a mark and a dynamic vase.


This arm is called when a program wants to subscribe to the agent on a particular path. The agent may or may not need to perform setup steps to intialize the subscription. It may produce a %give %subscription-result to the subscriber to get it up to date, but after this event is complete, it cannot give further updates to a specific subscriber. It must give all further updates to all subscribers on a specific path.

If this arm crashes, then the subscription is immediately terminated. More specifcally, it never started -- the subscriber will receive a negative %watch-ack. You may also produce an explicit %kick to close the subscription without crashing -- for example, you could produce a single update followed by a %kick.


This arm is called when a program becomes unsubscribed to you. Subscriptions may close because the subscriber intentionally unsubscribed, but they also could be closed by an intermediary. For example, if a subscription is from another ship which is currently unreachable, Ames may choose to close the subscription to avoid queueing updates indefinitely. If the program crashes while processing an update, this may also generate an unsubscription. You should consider subscriptions to be closable at any time.


This arm is called when a program reads from the agent's "scry" namespace, which should be referentially transparent. Unlike most handlers, this cannot perform IO, and it cannot change the state. All it can do is produce a piece of data to the caller, or not.

If this arm produces [~ ~ data], then data is the value at the the given path. If it produces [~ ~], then there is no data at the given path and never will be. If it produces ~, then we don't know yet whether there is or will be data at the given path.


This arm is called to handle responses to %give moves to other agents. It will be one of the following types of response:


This arm is called to handle responses to %pass moves to vanes. The list of possible responses from the system is statically defined in sys/zuse.hoon (grep for + sign-arvo).


If an error happens in +on-poke, the crash report goes into the %poke-ack response. Similarly, if an error happens in +on-subscription, the crash report goes into the %watch-ack response. If a crash happens in any of the other handlers, the report is passed into this arm.